Thursday, August 4, 2011

Announcing EcoHackNYC

Just a quick note to those still following.

We are planning a day and a half of presentations and hacking for those of you interested in global environmental change in the NYC area and elsewhere. We'll post more details as we get closer to the date, but start putting it on your calendars. It will be the first weekend of November, and you can find details here,


Monday, September 6, 2010

Biodiversity and conservation agenda at FOSS4G 2010

Today starts FOSS4G 2010 in Barcelona the biggest event on Open Source GIS software. We have been trying to push the participation of Biodiversity related projects and tools on this event in the previous months. Unfortunately most of the talks sent by Biodiversity related projects had not been accepted. The number of abstracts sent this year to the conference is been so big, that seems it was really hard to get into the program.

Nevertheless, there is still quite some Biodiversity and conservation related talks and events going on at FOSS4G and I would like to highlight from the official program a "Biodiversity and conservation agenda at FOSS4G 2010" for those interested on the topic. There is muuuch more in the program, I am just highlighting here what I believe is relevant to our community.

Tuesday 7th:

OpenLayers: SOS and INSPIRE This is not a biodiversity specific talk, but INSPIRE will likely change any Biodiversity project done in Europe, so I pick this one, as SOS is potentially one of the most realted standards to Biodiversity.

Wednesday 8th
Enhancing the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) with Open Source Software 

Natural Earth – Free World Base Map
The World Meteorological Oganization Information System
ecoRelevé: An open source response to the biodiversity crisis 

Thursday 9th:
Open-source Earthquake and Hydrodynamic Modelling 
Building the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas on an Open Source Framework 
Open Environmental Services Infrastructure 

We are also organizing a Break Out session for Biodiversity. Please register on the wiki so that we know how much people will be coming.

Finally maybe a list of people that I know are coming to FOSS4G and that are part of the biodiversity informatics community:

Andrew Hill - University of Colorado
Olivier Coullet - Natural solutions
Javier de la Torre - Vizzuality

I look forward to see you all there.

Monday, June 7, 2010

PhyloBox: A better way to do phylogenetic trees on the web

A few weeks ago Rod Page posted his experiments with displaying phylogenetic trees on the web using the HTML5 Canvas and JavaScript. I was particularly interested, and a bit threatened, by this post. At the time I had been toying with the exact same idea with the hopes of entering such a solution in the iEvoBio Visualization Challenge. As a response, I needed to step up my game. Here are the steps for going from a simple HTML Canvas rendering a phylogenetic tree to our end result, PhyloBox.

Step 1: Get a bigger weapon

I love tinkering with code and playing with new technologies, but I am far from the top when it comes to browser based smarts. I was going to need some help on this one. My friend Sander Pick was nice enough to spend some time tackling the problem with me. This was particularly exciting to me, as Sander has not spent much time thinking about biology on the web, getting some fresh perspective was just what this needed (in my opinion). He dove right into thinking about how to make trees, and in particular very big-trees, accessible in the HTML5 Canvas in really cool ways. Almost every time we started talking about solutions he would bring up an idea that was entirely new and exciting for this project.

Step 2: Bring trees up to speed

Phylogenetic trees are great, I love them, I have never loved their notation. Parenthetic? Might as well be punch cards. Nexus? Ok, not bad for a text-file on steroids. PhyloXML? Here we go, this might be on to something. Yet, I’m one of those people who feel like XML is sooo 2005, or maybe the year before that. What do we need to make the data within a phylogenetic tree usuable in a web application? My vote, JSON. It is simple, fast, and perfect for applications relying on JavaScript. Although it may not be able to handle some of the more complex tree notation in PhyloXML, I haven't run into that yet.

I went about creating a PhyloXML -> PhyloJSON converter and then Sander and I spent some time refining what exactly the data needed to look like to call it PhyloJSON and make it valuable for web-based visualization. I figured that what we do isn’t going to be the end-all of phylogenetic data on the web, so we have included the converter as a REST service for you to use (see here). I have near-future plans to make parenthetic->PhyloJSON and Nexus/NeXML -> PhyloJSON converters also, but would like to gather some feedback first.

PhyloJSON is primarily a conversion of the elements of phyloXML (right now a limited subset, but I'm willing to expand rapidly to match demand) to a JSON object. We changed some of the element names to reduce their length and we added a bit more top level information to define the environment (e.g. where to root the tree for viewing, what color to draw the background, where to position the tree, etc). In the process, we also flatten that tree, we weren't fond of the super nested structure of PhyloXML when we wanted to reference nodes in the trees with JavaScript very quickly. You can see the spec, here, and you can see an example of PhyloJSON here.

Step 3: Build a Web-Publishing Framework for Phylogenies

We wanted people to not only be able to view a phylogeny on the web, we also want them to be able to edit them to their liking (while still giving an option to just view). I have been doing some development on Google App Engine anyway (see GeoPhylo), so I was comfortable building the system there. I wanted to free myself from any hardware maintenance. But secondly, for reasons expanded below, I wanted to allow for a lot of requests at busy times (elasticity) without having to question my server admin skills. Finally, I wanted to take advantage of the free quotas, good amount of free data storage, and super-simple user management that comes with App Engine; users with existing Google accounts will automatically have accounts on our system.
The features of our framework are many.
  • Anonymous tree viewing. This allows users to use our technology without the need to actually sign-in or authenticate. So, for example, our REST services will take either a PhyloXML file or PhyloJSON file (zip supported for big ones), and return all the needed bits to view that tree on the web without any authentication (we are working on OAuth as well though for greater control including versioning and stored tree defaults). You can even use our tree editor anonymously (although there are some good bits you might like to sign-in for).
  • User based project management. This allows users to save and return to phylogenetic trees that they own. It also allows users to invite collaborators to edit the same tree. Or fork their tree into a new version, preserving the older ones to track progress or changes and track how many much the tree is being viewed.
  • Creative commons publishing. The system is open from the start. This may scare you, but let me explain. When a tree is uploaded to our site, it is assigned a UUID. If you know the UUID, you can see the tree, but can’t edit it unless you own it. That means that you can share the URL with anyone you want, but because the UUID has 16^32 combinations, no one should stumble upon it. This is a very similar method to the one that Google Docs uses if you use their ‘Get the link to share’ option. This will ensure that you can use the tree that you own for anything you darn well please.
  • Project forking. This is something we are excited about, and hope it doesn’t make you run the other way. If you share a link to a tree with me, but I am not an owner or collaborator on that tree, I can’t edit it. That’s too bad because I may want to show you some other branch coloring scheme that would look better, or convey the data better. In the spirit of science, we made it so that I can fork the project. When I fork it, I get a completely new UUID to a new tree object with all the same info, which I can edit and re-share with you. The history of ownership and contribution is maintained. You will always be the original author, and if anyone forks the tree that I made from yours, you are still original author. The entire ‘lineage’ of that tree is also kept so that we can reconstruct where changes came from who added what. Cool? Here is an figure of the concept.
  • Project management console. This aspect is far from complete, but in this area, we will give original authors ways of seeing where there idea has gone, see how often it is being viewed etc. For now, you can see a list of your trees and number of views.
  • A growing API, where advanced users can take advantage of each part of our system, without any use of the graphical UI.
With the project management in place, we give people a lot of ways to take advantage of our phylogenetic tree viewing technology (which we’re getting to, relax). Let us know what you would like to see and we will think about it in all our free time ;). Just kidding, really, let us know what you would like to see.

Step 4: Build Better Web-Publishing Methods for Phylogenies

So now we have methods for you to control, create, and share your trees within our site. But what if you want the trees on your site? Yes, you could use our super simple ‘output image’ button and stick that image on your website. But don’t we all want something more than that? Not only do you want to show the tree on your site, you want to control the starting view (dendrogram or phylogram, branch lenth or not, camera starting angle) shown to users. You probably even want the tree being to be interactive. Okay, now you are getting pushy, we had to think about this one for a while. We knew that we had this Canvas element where we would render your tree, but how do you share a Canvas efficiently? And how do you make sure that all those JavaScript libraries are getting incorporated at the right times? And how can we continue to develop our services with the most up-to-date technologies next year, and still give you the best looking tree that you published on your website last year? Well, other people have already answered these questions.

If you look at YouTube or SlideShare, their widget always looks the same across the internet, regardless of when someone actually added it to their website. We wanted that! The problem is, we weren't going for a Flash based solution, so getting it wasn’t so straight forward. I’ll spare you a lot of the boring details on this, but we did it. After a lot of tinkering, we got a pure JavaScript widget that works in much the same way as a YouTube video. Here is an example of a PhyloBox Widget:

We wanted to make the code to add a widget to your page super small and easy to just plop in there. Much like the EMBED code you may be familiar with from a YouTube video, we achieved a nice small package. Here is the code it took to embed the widget above:

<div id="PhyloboxEmbed" >
<div width="375" height="344" style="width:375px;height:344px;" id="phylobox_phylobox-1-0-ecfa61d1-db2b-49a3-9c05-8f4f682e68d9" class="phylobox_embed_parent"><a href=""><img src="" width="375" height="344" /></a>

In fact, you can click the ‘open tag-end tag’ icon on the widget itself and grab the code to put in your website! The interaction with that tree isn’t perfect yet. We just haven’t had time to get mouse or gesture based control yet, but go ahead and play with your arrow keys, or your A or Z keys or shift+V keys. There are others, but a lot of the interaction is being developed, so we will be changing a lot of it shortly. What is also cool here, is that while the rending of the tree isn’t perfect yet, as we improve our methods, the widget on this page will always show the most up-to-date version.
Some small caveats. The widget works on most all personal websites, so we assume your ScratchPads page or EOL Species Page can handle it no problem (but if not, we will work to make it happen real quick). However, blogs on BlogSpot don’t really like it, in fact flat out reject it, when you stick JavaScript in your blog posts. Well, “screw that” we said. In order to get around this, we made a small Gadget for you to add to your blog, you can see it in our sidebar (just the little link to PhyloBox). It just looks for the PhyloBox Widget Div element and if it exists in the current post, pulls in the necessary JavaScript to display your tree correctly. To get it running on your blog see our help page.
What was that? A YouTube sized display is too small for you to show a tree? Yeah, good point. Well, a YouTube sized display is probably too small to show a video a lot of times too. But that is just the reality of the web, real estate is needed for all sorts of things. That is why you can control the starting size right in the small snip of code, and that is also why YouTube so kindly has that fullscreen button on every video, and so do we! How cool is that? Because we hope people plug these in all over the web, we also expect (hope for) a large number of simultaneous requests. Oh, I should mention now, we haven’t even gone as far as scratching our heads over out-dated browsers. That would be like building highways for concrete wheels, we’re just not going to do it.
Buuuuuuut... If you really hate all of this and still just want to be able to put together a phylogenetic tree for the web and just insert an image of it on your website, we've got you covered.

is just,

<img src="" style="max-width:300px; max-height:300px;" />

Or obviously you can just download the image and host it from your own site.

Step 5: Romance them with the framework, steal their hearts with the canvas
Displaying data on the canvas is easy, displaying information on the canvas is less easy, adding interaction and user control to that information is downright nutty fun. I used my previous experience drawing phylogenies (GeoPhylo) to do a first pass implementation to just display a tree on the canvas. Following that, Sander and I had a couple of build up sessions to figure out what exactly Version 1.0 should include. It was a lot. Primarily though, we wanted several different view types: Phylogram, Dendrogram, Circular-Dendrogram, and 3D. We also wanted to be able to display very big trees in useful ways that transition to more the more familar views (dendrogram or phylogram) when only a small part is within view. And we wanted a handful of tools to be ready from the get-go, but the ability to add a lot more as we move forward.

Sander began writing a rendering engine for the trees. The idea was one engine for all view types, 3D or 2D. A few days later I went by his house for a beer and he showed me the engine at work. At that point he was trying to push 1000 node+branch objects into the canvas, spinning, at up to 60fps with shading. It was on.
We toned it back for display on our site to ~12fps and in a widget to just 8fps. This will keep a blog post with a couple tree widgets from completely sucking up all your CPU. Then engine is incredibly efficient though. We can render the tree in 3D in your browser and give you complete control over the editing tools and display of that tree. If you would like to see an example of a big tree, see the Frost et al. (2006) Amphibian tree (see rendered in your browser, here

Another exciting thing we did was add support for URIs in the nodes. This is built into phyloXML and we incorporated it into our phyloJSON. By enabling the URI tool in the editor, a user can link from a node to a GenBank record, a video, an image or anything you like. This tree has a few URI nuggets for you to discover (you must enable the URI tooltip and select the primary URI first).

The engine also allows for multiple tree objects on the same canvas, although we haven’t unlocked this feature on the site yet.

Conclusion: PhyloBox

We made PhyloBox flexible enough that you can use it from afar to just display your data or you can dive in and use all these features. We have already been thinking of some other important features to add if people like it. For example, why draw your tree once for publication and once for the web? We are working on export of high quality TIFFs or SVGs directly from the browser, for now PNGs will have to do. You like that? Well how about publishing a link to your interactive tree right in your paper? How about publishing the Widget itself right in a PlosOne paper? You don’t want people to fork your project? We are thinking about adding an opt-out option, but frankly don’t like it, it seems anti-scientific. We would like to hear your feedback on this one, maybe we could let you opt-out for only a limited amount of time (say 1 year) for a tree? You want to develop something home-grown to display a tree you customized on PhyloBox? You got it, use our lookup service to just retrieve the PhyloJSON object for one of your trees. Want commenting on trees? We can do that, just need to know the demand. We were thinking of having commenting on individual nodes, branches, or trees. I know having only phyloXML support can be a drag, I should have at least a Newick converter and upload available in the next week.
We really hope people like the PhyloBox concept. If not, we’d like to hear that too, because we need to know if you want us to develop this into the future. PhyloBox is somewhere around Beta, but the iEvoBio deadline is right now, so that is that. There is so much more we can add to this!

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

FOSS4G and Biodiversity International Year

I am not sure if there is enough people on the biodiversity informatics/conservation community that knows about the great conference on Open Source and GIS FOSS4G.

Most of us are already using great Open Source software for GIS. For example Geoserver, PostGIS, Quantum GIS,gvSIG, GRASS, OpenLayers, GDAL/OGR, MapServer and many more. This is the conference were all those developers meet. The conference include Workshops, tutorials and presentations. The level of the program is just amazing. Let me show you some of the ones of my own interest:

T-08: How to generate billions of tiles using distributed cloud-computing
T-11: Standardized geoprocessing with 52°north open source software
W-14: Practical introduction to GRASS
W-09: Quantum GIS and PostGIS: Solving spatial problems and creating web-based analysis tools

Or take a look at last year presentations to get excited on the great topics that are discussed on this conference.

So I really would like you to consider attending this great conference and participate on the Open Source movement on GIS.

But more important. In this International year on Biodiversity, I would like to get something organized around Biodiversity/Conservation and Open Source Geospatial software. I truly believe that GIS Open Source software is enabling the development of lot of our initiatives, and without it handling biodiversity knowledge would just be impossible.

The idea is to have enough people attending from this community to create a side event specific to biodiversity. Last year for example they created one event around interoperability of projects on Climate
Change. What about something similar for biodiversity?

The deadline for paper submissions and presentations is in 2 days, I know it is tight, and it would help me a lot to get support from the organizers if we get a decent submission on biodiversity/conservation

Considering that Biodiversity is deeply linked to Geospatial information I think it could be a great venue to push the requirements from our community into the development of Open Source GIS that most
of us are using anyway.

I have contacted organizers and they are willing to organize a side event for Biodiversity/Conservation, but they just need to know there is enough people interested on it.

I have sent multiple messages to different people and list that I know could be interested and I am getting already lot of answers of people that are gonna be submitting abstracts. I will try to collect all of them in this post so that we can see how the community will be represented.

Additionally if it is possible for you consider supporting the event as a sponsor or providing an official letter of support for the initiative.

Finally. We still need to decide what kind of event we will like to see there. Presentations, an interoperability test (like last year Climate Challenge Integration Plugfest)... we decide.

Looking forward to see lot of people from the community in Barcelona!

Tuesday, December 15, 2009

Recreating the European Starling story

The European Starling is a bird native to most  of temperate Europe and western Asia. I do not remember who was the first person that talked to me about it, Tim?, but since then I knew I wanted to develop something with it. The reason is funny/sad story behind it. The bird, that was only native in Europe and Asia, got introduced in lot of different places at the end of the 19th century. Since then it has spread to all continents and has been treated like a pest in lot of places, and for example, in Australia there is still efforts to prevent its introduction in the West. On the other hand in Europe it has been declining a lot, and it is now actually covered there by the Red List.

Specially appealing is the story on how it got introduced in North America. I will just quote Wikipedia for that:

Although there are approximately 200 million starlings in North America, they are all descendants of approximately 60 birds (or 100 [1]) released in 1890 in Central ParkNew York, by Eugene Schieffelin, who was a member of the Acclimation Society of North America reputedly trying to introduce to North America every bird species mentioned in the works of William Shakespeare.

I knew this was a story that could really be catchy. Specially if we could use scientific primary data to show this story. While working with Tim Robertson and Andrew Hill we started thinking about using Clustr, from Flickr, to create polygons out of primary data and see if we could display this story. I demoed this in Geoweb and TDWG this year and the feedback was most of the time really good. You can watch the video at Vimeo.

The challenge for that was that there is more than 1 million observations of the starling now available on GBIF and the classical point in map did not work well, the visualizations were tedious... well, kind of complicate. But the second semester of this year we started to see interactive maps that seemed to be analyzing raster images on the fly in Flash. This is really really cool. And since then we were just thinking more and more in raster representation of data to further filter in the client and allowing much more rich story telling. And then, one day, I showed the work from Andrew Cottam from WCMC on sea level rise and Google Maps for Flash. That was awesome! And being such a nice guy he is, he publish his code and saved me the time of figuring out the bitwise operations needed for at least one band raster. I am not sure if he wants me to put a link to his ongoing work so I will wait for him to publish it first (maybe in this blog ;) ).

So I could not resist and with  the help of Tim preparing the raster tiles for the starling, and Sergio doing some UI, we prepared the following demo application.

(Click the image to open)

Drag the slider from 1880 to 2010 to see the accumulative records (by date recorded) for the data available on the GBIF network. While you drag the slider you will be presented with tooltips mostly taken from Wikipedia.

Soon we will release all the source code, once a bit cleaned, and will share more technical details. And the best is yet to come... we only used one band on this demo, but we have 3 to play with!!

I hope you like it and want to share some comments.

Ah! Dont forget to turn on sound!

Monday, November 16, 2009

Amazon EC2, EBS RAID-0 & PostGIS build script

EC2's dirty secret
Javier's post was a great tutorial on building out a PostGIS database on Amazon EC2. We all know EC2, but it does have it's drawbacks and they are mainly related to disk IO. When using EC2 & EBS with large datasets you can easily run into IO bottlenecks. Individually these are not such a big deal, but when you are conducting global analyses poor disk IO on EC2 & EBS can quickly become a problem.

Clean living?
To help alleviate this, there is a trend of people stringing together EBS volumes and creating their own software RAID-0 arrays to achieve higher read and write throughput.

Nope, a Bash script.
I pieced together bits and bobs to create a script that builds out a PostGIS database on an n-volume RAID array on EC2. It's pretty simple stuff, but should mean that instead of hours, you can get your 20 volume RAID-0 PostGIS test rig up and running in minutes.

You can grab it from Github:

Monday, November 9, 2009

Automated informatics pipelines, public datasets, and the cloud

Although Biodivertido typically focuses on biodiversity informatics, I'm going to step it back to informatics of another stripe in the hopes of making a few points and getting people primed for Javier's TDWG talk Moving Biodiversity to the Cloud on Friday.

A couple of days ago I became curious if I could use CloudBurst to compare novel influenza sequences to the entire known sequence record of influenza in the hopes of detecting novel reassortants on the fly. The intended use of CloudBurst is to take small sequence reads from high throughput sequencing projects and query them against a complete genome a variety of reasons including SNP discovery, genotyping and personal genomics1. So why not take a novel influenza and break it up into many small overlapping fragments and query them against a genome comprised of all known sequences to detect reassortment?

Comparisons similar to these can likely be done using some manipulation of the Blast or similar algorithm. But in my case, I was particularly interested in CloudBurst because of its available implementation in EC2 using Hadoop to utilise the cluster environment. This means that if successful I could later wrap my method into an automated workflow for detecting and reporting potentially novel influenza reassortants as soon as new sequences are reported.

I posted an overview of the steps it took below. In the end, as a first pass detection of reassortment it appears promising or at least interesting. All in all, I went from idea, to data assembly, to trial implementation in about 2 hours (not counting a few hours trying to get Hadoop to run the CloudBurst.jar. Hadoop version number = VERY important). That is great for the study of influenza, but what about biodiversity informatics?

There are a few things that made this so simple.

First, a rapid adoption of EC2 by the bioinformatics community. Look for example at the JVCI maintained Bio-linux distribution for use on EC2. It comes prepackaged with a whole smörgåsbord of very fun little tools. It costs 34 cents per hour (not 10 because it requires a 64-bit instance) and takes about 1 minute to set up your very own copy. Where is our (the biodiversity informatics community's) GISing, niche modeling, distribution mapping, PDing, SGAing, Hadoop spatial joining, machine image?

Second, a growing community of users who are exchanging knowledge about how to tackle these very large datasets in the cloud. Biodiversity informatics is growing its own such community, writers of this blog can attest to that.

Third, cloud hosted datasets. Amazon Web Services is making it fairly simple to host very large datasets that anyone in the community can access. The GenBank image is ~200gb and takes 5 minutes to set up as a mounted volume for my own use. This targets a completely different consumer then our data portals and APIs. It opens up the data for the community of informatics enthusiasts doing cool things on the cloud (think spelling correction, retrospective georeferencing, spatial joining).

With all that said I'd like to return to think about how this relates to biodiversity informatics. I've been talking with a variety of people over the past few weeks and all of them show some level of interest in moving to the cloud. What I'm worried about now is that we will adopt many of the same stances as a community as we have had without the cloud. The case study I developed above relied heavily on easily accessible data and tools. We as a community must move forward with this as a primary goal. Likely, there will always be a need for portals and APIs, but for really big questions sometimes it is just easier to have the entire dataset ready for access. Why hasn't our community got it together enough to launch a unified public dataset in the cloud?

I guess data quality concerns and ownership are two primary concerns. I'm sorry, but those are bad reasons, time to grow up, it isn't 2001 any longer.

Once in place we can begin to build new methods (or reapply existing ones) for parsing out duplicate records, linking data to geographic areas, merging error types into targeted datasets, and sharing findings with the owners of the original data. The 'snapshot' approach as implemented in AWS Public Data Set makes it so we consumers constantly rely on the original providers to include the newest and most up to date records, none of our hard work will be included in future snapshots if we don't come up with methods for reporting corrections to the source.

It is important to restate, I don't think portals and APIs will go away. They are for two completely different consumer communities than those interested in looking at the entire dataset at once, versus pulling smaller subsets of data manually or developing tools to do so via API interfaces. I do think that by providing public datasets, new methods and technologies for enhancing the portals and APIs will arise, as well as still unknown methods for improving the datasets at source, and ultimately enhancing our knowledge about the world's biodiversity.


After downloading Hadoop (version 0.18.3), here is what I ran.

Launch Hadoop cluster, create and mount a volume containing the GenBank influenza data

>src/contrib/ec2/bin/hadoop-ec2 launch-cluster cloud 5

>ec2-create-volume --snapshot snap-fe3ec297 -z us-east-1d

>ec2-attach-volume vol-7b49a612 -i MASTERNODEIDHERE -d /dev/sdh

>src/contrib/ec2/bin/hadoop-ec2 login cloud

$mkdir /inf

$mount /dev/sdh /inf

Here I ran a small Python script to extract all sequences (hemagluttanin only) known prior to the original swine flu outbreak, concatenate those sequences into a single “genome” saved as data/genome.fa, and recording a map of where in the genome each sequence ended.

Next, a group of sequences (again, hemagluttanin only) from the earliest swine flu outbreaks were broken up into numerous overlapping fragments and saved as data/segs.fa, again keeping a map of where each fragment belonged. These are the 'novel sequences' I would test for any cases of reassortment.

Download and extract CloudBurst


$tar xzf CloudBurst-1.0.1.tgz

$mv CloudBurst-1.0.1/ data/

Convert fasta files to Hadoop ready files

$java -jar data/ConvertFastaForCloud.jar data/genome.fa data/

$java -jar data/ConvertFastaForCloud.jar data/segs.fa data/

Move the data to hdfs

$/usr/local/hadoop-0.17.0/bin/hadoop fs -put ~/data /data

Run the analysis

$/usr/local/hadoop-0.17.0/bin/hadoop jar ~/data/CloudBurst.jar /data/ /data/ /results 40 3 0 1 50 15 5 5 128 5

Copy results from hdfs

$/usr/local/hadoop-0.17.0/bin/hadoop fs -get /results results

Convert the results back to human readable format

java -jar data/PrintAlignments.jar results >results.txt


Parsing meaning out of the results was a bit more labor intensive and I forewent any automation (for now), using OpenOffice spreadsheets to map matched portions back to their original viruses and report accession numbers. What I found was interesting, exciting and promissing, even matching some of the findings reported in Kingsford et al., 2009, from only 2 hours of work and a couple of dollars. I was pretty satisfied.